Sea Intrusion and Condition of Mangroves Ecosystem at Keti Bunder.

 Role of Institutions Towards Conservation of Mangroves Ecosystem. 

From the Tibetan plateau to the Arabic sea the Indus River is primary source of fresh water and all along its 3000km course communities depends on it for their livelihood Area known as Keti Bunder or Karachi Port. In its final stages the Indus river spreads out into a fan shaped delta of meandering creeks and channels where over two million people depends on the region’s diverse and unique ecosystem. Unfortunately the delta has reached in crisis of up water reduced due to dams and agricultural purposes hence delta dependent coastal communities are facing much problems in fishing, forests and agriculture is main livelihood of the area.

Marine and coastal habitats Pakistan Sindh:

 The coastline of pakistan is charactrized by a variety of habitats, Indus delta,thick mangroves forests,riverine forests,irrigated plains,fresh water and brackish wetlands,islands,bays,creeks,mudflats,salt marshes,estuaries,lagoons and beaches.

Pakistan’s mangrove Ecosystem:

The economic importance of mangroves in pakistan largely comes from the fishery resources that they harbor. An estimated 80% of the fish caught in coastal waters spend at least part of their life cycle as fry in the mangrove creeks, or depend on the food web within the mangrove ecosystem. Shrimp  fishery is the major fish export of mangroves, accounting for  68% of the $100 million of the foreign exchange the country earns from fisheries exports. The mangroves swamps of the sindh coastal zone are extensive, covering 243,000 hectares compared with 7400 ha along the balochistan coast.

Here are some primary data concerned to this article, which I have gathered with (SDPI) Sustainable Development Policy Institute Islamabad.

Wwf-pakistan expert explained that, mangrove forest issues started from 1980. People used for their fuel, But now present status mostly Devi plant is used for fuel purposes instead of mangroves at keti bunder.

Mangroves are artificially planted on wrong side from east instead of west, where environmental threats hit the region’s natural and socio-economic infrastructure and devastate the people to vulnerable conditions. In 1999 cyclone had massively damaged the mangroves structures. In Keti bunder coastal area illegal activities occurred like,  human smuggling, black business of drugs happens but major community is dependent upon the fish hunting and aquaculture in  the region. Technical advisor-of marine ecosystem of wwf-pakistan Muhammad Moazzam khan said that; four species of mangroves forest is being studied now and four is out of study. People of the area have engaged in different kinds of activities and awareness programs of conservations of mangroves plant. Print and electronic media also encouraged the some advocacy programs by news and documentaries awareness programs about conservation.

Wwf-pakistan have taken the initiatives at keti bunder provided the flatterd boxes for fishes, actually the main misuse of money is fisher man himself over the community. Due to lack of education in area the psychologyof fisher man’s generation is not changing over there.

IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature, expert Tahir Qureshi shared his experience. About 350 hectors private plantations were farmed, due to sea intrusion from many years about three times community had migrated for their livelihood to balanced settlement other areas. Government department has no mutual coordination at all; the work of fedral section has no knowledge about the area under provincial department in sindh specially.  If we have to say about the role of institutins to conservation of coastal ecosystem and mangroves forests, because we don’t have community participation, major stack holder is community.

Fisher folk forum Pakistan pff, Experts shared different form above opinion pff works on the protection of mangroves instead of plantations, they named mangroves the protected area coverd and stricts for law and enforcement by the forest department of sindh. Main function of mangroves is to resists the sea intrusion. Basic work pff has explained is community participation. It prefers protection and conservations of climate change instead of plantation and enhancements. Local coastal community has no options to cut forest for fuel, but they until use some where depends upon their surrounding environment.

Karachi DHA is a main threat towards mangroves conservation, by their development agenda’s in area or construction works. Local community is ready to participate in the conservation programs of international and national organizations, created interests to work safe the conservation process.

Sindh forest department has given their Expertise; coastal community is totally depends upon the hunting of fish, so they are least interested in plantation and conservation of coastal ecosystem. Ngo’s work is not sustainable for a long time, ngo’s work on short time period make plantations in projects they have but don’t sustain the forestation process for whole life of plant.


Policies should be made accordingly, to conserve the mangrove forests for the future green peace on indus delta sindh pakistan.

Fresh water issues could be solved In addition to make strong socio-economic conditions over the indus delta community and their livlihoods.

Institutions can play great role in saving the mangrove forests and make fresh water policies at indus delta to, reduce the pressure of dams on upstream. It deprived the lower stream community living conditions.


WWF-Pakistan Expert

IUCN Expert

Fisher Folk Forum Pakistan Expert

Sindh Forest Department